BATESON to refer to the ability, especially highly developed in humans, to communicate about communication. Metacommunication consists in different types of 'framing' of messages which allow us to understand how these messages should be interpreted. I Thanatos, the death or aggressive instinct. retained earnings The functioning of the id is governed by the pleasure principle, and takes the form of reflex or instinctual reactions. The ego is that part of the personality structure which represents the reality principle and which diverts or 'sublimates' instinctual drives which derive from the id.
On the other, it is pointed out that there is great cross-cultural variation in the definition and interpretation of 'biological' kinship , and it has been shown that the analysis of kinship terms as CATEGORY terms, without reference to biological core meanings, is also a productive approach. B Banditry emerges where there is a disjunction of NORMS of legitimacy between the state and the local community, and also where there is a breakdown of traditional communal social, economic and political structures. Turner, Victor W. These issues have been extensively debated within COGNITIVE ANTHROPOLOGY which has moved away from an initial position of relativism towards the assertion of universal underlying frameworks of CLASSIFICATION . The view of anthropology as translation has been challenged by those theorists who regard it as idealist and who prefer to stress the search for the discovery of laws or regularities in human social organization and development in terms of its material base. (See CULTURAL ECOLOGY; EVOLUTION; LINGUISTIC RELATIVISM.
Sions of matrifocality is the extent to which female-centred households are regarded as entirely normal or ideal, and the extent to which they are capitulations to real economic and social problems in societies where the ultimate ideal is stable monogamous marriage and the father-centred family. Similarly, it has been suggested that mothercentred family forms are related to certain economic circumstances, in particular labour instability and unemployment among males. (See CONSENSUAL UNION.) matrilateral. Refers to those relatives who are linked to Ego through Ego's mother. Matrilateral cross-cousin marriage. Marriage of male Ego with his MBD is a pattern which LEVI-STRAUSS, in his theory of the ELEMENTARY STRUCTURES of kinship and marriage, characterized as generating a system of 'indirect exchange' or 'generalized reciprocity' since if strictly observed this rule would give rise to the circulation of women between groups.
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However, check outliers synonym definition and meaning in english at our online dictionary below. A favourite form of tolerance was to grant a permit to the Jews to remain in the state for a limited term of years; their continuance beyond the specified time was illegal and they were therefore subject to sudden banishment. Objections to labour as the measure of value have been raised on the grounds that different levels of capital intensivity, of technological involvement, and of social usefulness or demand for the product should also be taken into account in determining the value of commodities. The most up to date, comprehensive and best value students’ dictionary on the market. This major new dictionary has been created from scratch, by two teams of over 100 lexicographers, working in Britain and America.
The emergence of patrilineality was related in Bachofen's theory to the development of private property and the corresponding desire of men to pass this on to their children. MORGAN, basing his argument on the analysis of kinship terminology, agreed with Bachofen that the matrilineal preceded the patrilineal stage in social evolution. This often controversial French intellectual has had considerable influence on Marxist theory in anthropology as well as in other disciplines. Althusser maintains that different spheres such as the economic, the political and the ideological possess a relative degree of autonomy and independence, and that the base or INFRASTRUCTURE is only determinant of the totality 'in the last instance'.
- A concept introduced by WEBER to refer to the transformation of CHARISMA TIC leadership into INSTITUTIONALIZED leadership.
- Such control is generally impossible to exercise in the social sciences, and the laboratory experiment is thus limited to the fields of natural science and psychology.
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- 82 dominance domestic group's independence as the unit which controls the MEANS OF PRODUCfiON and the labour process.
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Thus the two classic monographs, Evans-Pritchard's The Nuer and Fortes' The Dynamics of Clanship among the Tallensi marked both the establishment of the functionalist and lineage theory perspectives as the dominant paradigms in British social anthropology. In The Nuer Evans-Pritchard postulated a model of SOCIAL STRUCTURE based on the interaction of territorial and descent principles. The SEGMENTARY lineage system, he claimed, functioned in such a way as to define territorial-political units contextually, according to specific situations of opposition and unity and processes of FISSION and fusion.
Thus within a given mode of production different historical 'conjunctures' give rise to a number of different social formations subject to the influence of a range of determining factors. This interpretation of economic determinism stands in opposition both to vulgar materialism and to CRITICAL THEORY with its emphasis on the early 'Hegelian' Marx. The obligation to repay is linked to the belief that the gift retains a spiritual relationship to the giver in systems where things are 'parts of persons' and social identity, status and prestige are thus at stake in gift exchange. Elements of this morality are present in modern gift exchange, but they are largely eclipsed by the MARKET type of exchange which dominates the modern economy.
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A type of psychological test referred to as 'projective' since it encourages and permits the subject to project his or her psychological attributes, fantasies and tensions. In the Rorschach test the subject is asked to state what he or she sees in a series of inkblots which are ambiguous in form. CULTURE AND PERSONALITY research has employed the Rorschach test widely in the past in order to obtain data on personality traits which was then related to cultural patterning. French philosopher of the ENLIGHTENMENT who is regarded as an important precursor of anthropology because of his emphasis on the inherently social and cultural nature of human life and human history. In his Le Contrat social Rousseau formulated the theory that the nature of the social collectivity, which was later to influence DURKHEIM was the expression of the 'general will'. Rousseau is often cited for his notion of the 'noble savage', and his argument that with the progress of civilization and the accompanying economic inequality man's moral nature degenerates, a situation which he believed could be remedied through the implementation of enlightened educational policies and the political application of the principles of the social contract.
It has been applied after independence to former colonial nations where national elites have to some extent taken over the dominant position of former colonial elites where subordinate ethnic groups are concerned. It has also been applied to situations of systematic racial discrimination, such as the relations between whites and blacks and other ethnic groups in the United States. In 19th- and early 20th-century anthropology, the debate between proponents of DIFFUSIONISM and those who proposed the importance of independent bookkeeping invention of culture TRAITS was an important one, but in modern anthropology this controversy has subsided to a large extent. A type of KINSHIP TERMINOLOGY found among the Iroquois Indians and which has come to be used as a general term for similar systems found in other parts of the world. The Iroquois system is of the BIFURCATE merging type, equating parallel cousins with siblings and distinguishing cross-cousins from both. It is often found_in conjunction with symmetric alliance or DUAL ORGANIZATION.
They neither manufactured nor possessed any chattels beyond such articles of clothing, weapons, ornaments and utensils as they might carry on their persons, or in the family store-bag for daily use. The Presbyterianism now visible in England is of Scottish origin and Scottish type, and beyond the fact of embracing a few congregations which date from, or before, the Act of Uniformity and the Five Mile Act, has little in common with the Presbyterianism which was for a brief period by law established.
At the same time, the lineage system provided a language in terms of which political relations were expressed and articulated. Evans-Pritchard's model of the segmentary lineage system has been widely criticized, both in terms of contradictions with the empirical evidence and in terms of its theoretical presuppositions. He himself came increasingly to stress that the model was not intended to account for actual social organization or group structure on the ground, but rather as an approximation to Nuer vahies or ideal models of social structure, in terms of which actual social relations could be expressed and interpreted.
A mode of scientific investigation which attempts to verify or falsify hypotheses by means of maximal control over the variables under investigation. Such control is generally impossible to exercise in the social sciences, and the laboratory experiment is thus limited to the fields of natural science and psychology. Under certain circumstances it may be possible to construct quasi-experiments under partially controlled conditions in the social sciences, but more commonly the sociologist or anthropologist must rely on processes of interpretation and analysis of uncontrolled macmillan dic data available from the historical record or obtained by social scientific research techniques. (See RESEARCH DESIGN.) exploitation. Used in an ecological sense to refer to the utilization of a given resource or resources in the environment. In its economic sense, it is the extraction of SURPLUS value from producers. According to Marx, exploitation arises in class-based societies as a result of the ability of the dominant class, who control the MEANS OF PRODUCTION, to extract from the producer more than is needed for the latter's basic subsistence needs or payment.
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The emic/etic distinction, while it cannot be used to classify or divide anthropological aproaches into neat categories, nevertheless points to a crucial area of controversy and of great theoretical importance within the discipline. 200 mores nalized by the individual and a part of his or her own set of values, to which emotional importance is attached. Anthropology is generally characterized by a high degree of moral relativism, and the bulk of ethnographic and anthropological discourse tends towards the accumulation and presentation of evidence which supports the notion that moral values are highly variable and relative both between cultures and from one historical period to another. A Swiss lawyer and classicist, Bachofen was inspired by his studies of classical mythology to develop a theory of the evolution of kinship systems. He postulated that an early stage of primitive promiscuity was characterized by MATRIARCHY or mother right, which was replaced by PATRILINEALITY at a later stage of development (e.g. 1861).
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The term derives from the English word 'Egyptians'. The Romany language spoken by gypsies is of Hindu origin. Gypsies and their mode of life have attracted the attention of ethnographers to a limited extent, particularly the processes of isolation and self-isolation which maintain them at the margin of the wider community, and the symbolization by both gypsy and non-gypsy groups of their relationships in terms of stereotypical social, moral and supernatural attributes. CHOLOGICAL ANTHROPOLOGY and others would suggest that it is necessary to view biological and sociocultural systems as mutually interrelated. Both the biological determinist and sociological determinist positions are inadequate, in that they fail to take into account the fact that it is humans' biological nature to be cultural and social beings.
Production in small-scale traditional societies is generally directed to use value, not EXCHANGE VALUE. In the capitalist economy however the criterion of use value is suppressed in favour of ALIENA TED production for exchange value. (See DOMESTIC MODE OF PRODUCTION; SUBSISTENCE; SURPLUS). 232 prestige refers contra asset account to the total social context or relationship in which the exchange is embedded. The hydraulic or irrigation civilization is one in which state power is based on control over systems of irrigation and water supply. CUSTOMS and habits, or typical behaviour patterns, characteristic of a given community or FOLK.
Levi-Strauss points out that this system is less secure than SYMMETRIC ALLIANCE in the sense that a man or group a gives a woman to a man or group b without the immediate security of return, since a will receive his wife not directly from b but from another man or group c, d ore, and so on, depending on the number of groups involved in the system. On the other hand, argues Levi-Strauss, this system also integrates more local groups than direct exchange will, because it is open-ended and will not tend to break up into separate wife-exchanging dyads as a direct exchange system will. In systems of matrilateral cross-cousin marriage the wife-exchanging circuit may be closed ('marrying in a circle') where the groups concerned are of equal status, or it may be open, as in HYPERGAMOUS and HYPOGAMOUS marriage systems which are associated with systems of status differential between wife-exchanging groups. Modern studies of this as of other types of marriage PRESCRIPTION have increasingly come to recognize the flexibility and situational variability of marriage norms, and thus to pay less attention to the hypothetical consequences of strict adherence to the rule and more to the dialectical relationship which exists between model and practice. 108 experiment shape our interpretation of events while at the same time the sum of individual experiences is part of the content of our culture. Distinctive or special personal experiences of certain culturally standardized types are taken up within cultural traditions and form the basis for the collective creation of MYTH, LEGEND and ORAL TRADITION. Similarly the sociological and psychological effects of RITUAL and ART .rely on a merging of cultural form and individual experience.
This is to say no more than that investigations of the biological aspects of behaviour and sociocultural systems should be submitted to the same process of critical analysis to which we should submit all theories in the social sciences, an analysis which examines the actual and potential ideological implications of the theory concerned. 170 lineage theory The works of RADCLIFFE-BROWN were important in influencing these developments. In his essay on 'Patrilineal and Matrilineal Succession' RadcliffeBrown argued that kin-based CORPORATE GROUPS were necessarily unilineal, since only unilineal descent could provide fixed and unambiguous group membership.
That is to say, our behavioural and psychological 'programming' includes abilities like LANGUAGE, and other complex symbolizing capabilities, and the predisposition towards social and cultural organization. To recognize the importance of biological predispositions and conditions in shaping human sociocultural systems, however, should not be confused with the political or ideological process of proposing a carefully selected model of biological determinism in order to justify the subordination of given racial, ethnic or social groups and categories.